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Pour in concrete

As a homeowner, you can over the years have to do some casting operations. Most of these are restorations of old concrete surfaces, but there are also a lot of other jobs for those who want to do it yourself. It is no secret that the preliminary work is very important in the context of most craft and it also applies to the casting. Do you have the right conditions regarding documentation, forms, etc, it is actually not that difficult to cast in concrete.

You can buy concrete in two ways. If you need a larger amount you can order ready-mixed concrete delivered directly from a special car. The most common, however, is to buy dry concrete in bags of 25 kg and then mix yourself gradually.

Concrete consists essentially of cement paste and so called aggregates. The aggregate containing sand, gravel and stone, while the paste is a mixture of cement, water and air. To the concrete will stiffen and get good strength and other properties it is important that you mix according to the directions that are on the bag. Remember to use clean water when mixing. If the water is in any way been contaminated, it can change the chemical process since when the concrete hardens.

An old rule of thumb regarding the fresh concrete consistency is that the less water, the stronger the concrete. When molding in small or narrow shape, it is important that the concrete “floating out” so that it can not form air pockets at the edges of the mold. When you select the quality of the concrete, you should take into account what is to be cast. There is a special ytbetong for casting floors. Concrete for other works are in different classes and thicknesses. Select the quality of consultation with knowledgeable store personnel if you are unsure.

When you pour concrete into the form, it is important that the form is manufactured with accurate dimensions, you take into account the possible connections and that the shape is tight and stable. When you manufacture the mold, it is important that you have access to a well and at some works long spirit. Remember that you create when you make the mold. When it is filled with fresh concrete can now no longer influence the casting result.

A very common concrete work is the casting of pole mounts for fences, drying stand etc. You can pour directly into the ground or with a tube of cardboard or cement form. Whether casting method, it is important that the pole shoe ends up straight and in the correct position when found. You can carefully adjust this with the spirit level when the concrete has begun to stiffen, or prop up and plumb the pole shoe from the start. But do not forget to check with water so that the staging is plumb.

When the concrete is well compacted and the surface or the form completely filled, you should generally smooth surface. Use a ‘rivbräde and, if you want a very smooth surface, a board of steel. The newly cast surface must not dry too quickly because it can cause the concrete to crack. This is because concrete shrinks violently and uncontrollably. To prevent this, make sure that the concrete is kept moist for a few days during the curing. It can be done in three ways: showering the surface at regular intervals, cover the surface with plastic wrap, wet bags or the like, or syringe so-called membranes hardening of the surface.

At most major molding operations used rebar to reinforce concrete structure further. Reinforcing steel may also be warranted at some smaller molding operations. In addition to the reinforcement makes the construction more sustainable, contributing irons also reduce cracking at the example casting of stairs. Before you tackle a larger mold-work, you should be sure you can handle the work in the right way. Keep in mind that a lot of work as a rule also requires knowledge of strength, etc.

Learn how to glue veneer

In this article you will find detailed information and make it self-explanatory instructions with photographs that show you how to glue veneer.

Both in terms of new interiors, as the maintenance of the interior and functional, but a bit older and battered furniture, can benefit greatly from being able to deal with veneers. If you have never tried it might seem dissuasive to work with paper thin wood. In fact, it is quite easy. By using veneers whenever possible saves you also a lot of money as material, compared with solid wood are considerably cheaper.

Natural wood contributes almost always make a home warm cozy and pleasant. The main reason for example interior desires of that sort too often not realized is the high cost of massive wood. In particle board or other flat, suitable surface veneer can be enacted or preferably glued. The same applies to many other interior details, such as cabinet doors and furniture. While there are now a wide range of newly manufactured furniture at affordable prices, but too often we cashes include a cupboard, table and seating of the older dates completely unnecessarily.

It need not be anything wrong with the furniture’s functionality to its surface no longer suited to the style home in general. It is also not very difficult to veneer a table top than for example the paint. BI is a work in basically the same. It must be flat, clean and free of paint and grease.

The cost of a veneering can often control himself quite well. It’s mostly a matter of how exclusive it is in the choice of materials. The range of veneers is very large and the price will vary both the thickness and type of wood. If you choose veneers given to later add the same material, there may be reason to forgo mahogany and similar exclusive imports. Yet there is such material in rather large stocks, but these are not filled on the particularly fast pace in view of the rain forest protection.

The equipment you need to be self FANERA is fairly simple. Most of the tools are available in a standard equipment. The only exception is probably clamps. In each case it can be a greater number than is usual in a home workshop. For the most part tend to be able to solve the problem by borrowing from neighbors and friends.

But to succeed really well one must also be equipped with well-developed senses of accuracy and patience. It is extremely important that the adhesive adheres well everywhere and polishing of edges and the like is done so carefully that no chipping of the surface.

Three gluing

Plywood can be attached to the substrate with a thin pin, but the support is any type of wooden board gives it almost always benefits to glue. You can use three different types of glue commonly Joiner, waterproof adhesive and contact adhesive. It is called Joiner’s PVA glue and is most common. It can be used even in moderately moist environments, but for safety’s sake you should paint the PVA glued veneers. Veneer can be exposed to water you should use polyurethane or any other frothy, waterproof glue. This assumes, however, that the surface is waterproof and that all end grain provided with glued edges.

Finally, you can use contact adhesive. It’s a little harder to deal with because it “bite” as quickly and therefore make it difficult to correct if necessary. displacements.

Plywood taken out of the most diverse types of wood. The most common thickness of the veneer is 0.8, 1.5 and 2.8 mm. When it is cut into slices from the tree trunk grain will lie almost parallel to the edges. It is then called sliced (for hours).

When the veneer peeled from a tree trunk rotating forming uneven grain pattern. This is called peeled veneer (T v). But at the same time providing contact adhesive is a great advantage: you do not have to put the veneer surface in the press. Contact adhesive is especially suitable when working with large surfaces. Veneers can be almost paper thin and then is full of practically invisible pores. During the press can glue go up through these pores and to the veneer will not stick to the pressure disc, you must always add a thin plastic sheet between these two surfaces.

 

worth knowing

Veneers are sold by timber merchants, often by companies specializing in material. Veneers in smaller formats can sometimes get in the building stocked markets. It is also called gelatinized fanerremsor that can complement along the edges of, for example, gaps or the like. It attaches them easily by plating the strip with the help of an iron on low heat.

Learn to cut glass

In this article you will find detailed information, do it yourself instructions and explanatory photographs that show you how to work and cut glass.

Most of today’s home owners rarely have cause to themselves to grips with cut glass. In any case, it seems generally consider this. Even simpler jobs transferred usually on the glass master. Have the other hand, an older house with some odd shaped windows, or for example a vacation far away from the glazing, it is both practical and economically viable contingency glass quickly to repair the damage. It is not as difficult as you think to cut glass.

Sooner heard spare glass nearly to the ordinary household equipment. If a wind would tear up a window or mismatched football to the road through a closed box would damage quickly repaired. For many home owners, such a hedge be of great use even today. You would not have to provisionally cover broken windows. It would also avoid many times completely unnecessary transportation and labor costs.

Moreover, one can in more hobby stressed contexts have good advantage of being able and daring to deal with glass, for example, be able to put glass in a picture frame, cut to a bench or table top material. You do not need to invest a lot of money on expensive tools to cut glass. Actually, you only need a great ruler and a glass cutters. Neither one or the other will cost a fortune. Nowadays, you can choose from cheap cutter and more advanced with hard metal cutter. The latter is comparable in price with glaziers’ diamonds.

For round, oval and figure cuts are part special, but in most cases you can manage even such works using stencils that you can cut into the cardboard or cut into thin plywood. An important part of the equipment is steady and not too hard and rigid surface. But even this is reasonably easily arranged. A thin blanket, a piece of cardboard or soft wood fiber board is usually all that is needed.

Actually, it is not particularly difficult to cut the glass, but it requires of course that is easy on your hand and make it a habit to always keep clean on the work table. Sheep, for example, glass residues remain, it is easy for an otherwise neat cutting work is impaired by scratched surfaces. Splitter and larger grains of sand can cause the glass to shortcomings in the wrong place. If you are a beginner, you are wise to, before you tackle more advanced work, practice on the glass that is not so valuable.

 

Tip!

A comfortable springy bed of glass works is to add a few layers of newspaper over a table. But always make sure the surface is free from glass debris. A single plate lifting 40 kg. For easier lifting eg round glasurtag can use ordinary toilet plunger.

Worth knowing

When you use a glass cutter with a pulley, you can use the cutting sound whether you are the tool correctly. The disk will emit a slight whistling sound, but the father did not squeak. A glass to be framed must always be cut to 1-2 mm clearance around. Penetrates the glass in the fold crack sooner or later. So called for cuts of narrow strips are very difficult to do.

The art of burning wood

Burning wood

Are you one of those who now and then want to vary too polished life in terms of your furniture? In this case, you can use a very simple method to give a bit of age patina to such träklädda walls and ceilings, some other interior and one or other unpainted, perhaps avlutad Furniture. “Antique Treatment” simply go out on the burning of wood with a propane burner that highlights the wood grain.

Obviously there are strong reasons to make use of modern technology in our homes. To renounce this would not only make life cumbersome and inconvenient, but also involve an unnecessary and unacceptable waste. When we, for example, use of advanced methods of heating and ventilation systems, we keep down energy costs and improving the overall environment.

And the more we allow the machines to over the counter, laundry and similar necessary daily routines, the more time is left for more comprehensive employment. Nevertheless, many people need an anchor in the time period and often in a “primitive” environment in each case approaching an existence so unvarnished, for example, hunting and fishing provides a sense of self.

“Wilderness Romance” says an occasional critic and sneeze maybe on the nose, but more or less pronounced ambitions in this direction are often accompanied by strong and valuable tradition of conservation initiatives. Desires do such actions including an increasing number of homes that have the appearance of the past log cabins and robust, trävita furniture, which for centuries have reflected Nordic folk character, periodically become the height of fashion.

Even if it costs a lot of money refrains also growing – especially in homes – from the wallpaper and ceiling tiles easy to decorate with wood paneling and thus ensure a more authentic environment. The snag is just that it takes a few years before, for example, pine panel darkens and gets the luster per tradition. Nor shall it any further “help” of soot from inrökande
stoves and reeking of kerosene lamps.

It is in that situation you can to modern technology to help and with a gas flame imitate former times “sotdekor” as becoming entrenched in the wood surface hard annual rings and gave the interior a relief-like structure. When you are “cheating” until this effect by burning with an open flame blackens the hard growth rings while the soft, remain bright.

One might think that with glaze or stain could achieve the same effect, but this is not the case. Rather than sucking the soft growth rings up more of the color, the grain almost “disappear” in an almost monochromatic surface. The equipment you need is very simple. In addition to the gas burner with a flat tip or burner does a wire brush, or a rough scrubbing brush.

 

Learn to grind with sandpaper on wood

In this article you will find detailed information and step by step instructions with explanatory photographs on how to sharpen with sandpaper by hand on wood.

There are professional carpenters who quite seriously argue that the grinding of wood is a science. Most certainly perceive such a statement as a clear exaggeration and a manifestation of unbridled professional pride. That may be how any of that. The claim is in any case a hint that grinding is actually advanced vocational technology how simple tasks may seem.

Polishing the wood is wholly essential for all painting work and for practically all wallpapering. When all the fancy paint jobs, it is also a matter of sharpening by hand. If you look closely at the picture of the beautifully decorated painted coffin here next door, you can see the marks on the coffin lid.

Some are impact marks, but the streaking in the wood longitudinal direction at the right, transverse, black bracket are traces of the original coating. Such badges We accept, of course.
They may even have value, because they can tell you about the coffin age.

Probably these brands traces attempts to otherwise than with sandpaper to remove notches after a plane irons. The marks are so serious that they can hardly be sanding marks after sanding. And sandpaper did not come into common use until the early 1800s.

On new wooden surfaces, we accept no marks of this kind either on furnishings, door frames, window frames or the like. This is of course the fact that we now have the technology to obtain very smooth, smooth wood surfaces premise of a perfect painting.

Various grades

Ordinarily speaking, most of us still like sandpaper. Professional painters, by contrast, abandoned long term. The reason is obvious: the sand is now used infrequently as the abrasive, but has been replaced by the far more efficient materials.

Now called the sandpaper and the working material is abrasive. Furthermore it distinguishes between natural abrasives and synthetic abrasives. Natural Abrasives can be flint, garnet and glass, crushed to different grain sizes and glued on special paper.

Synthetic abrasives made of eg silicon carbide and corundum the latter a hard material of aluminum oxide. The difference between natural and synthetic medium is quite large. Natural abrasive grains often become quickly dull and cut as bad. The synthetic is harder and stay sharp better. Sandpaper with synthetic coating cuts not just better, they also hold much longer.

Different grain sizes
There are both Swedish and imported sandpaper. The papers are graded according slipkornens size.
The table is a European and an international scale. There you can also see which grit size suitable for different kinds of work. Since it is quite common to inherit or otherwise assumes tool kits happens that you meet on the older numbering. In the past, a distinction was made between sandpaper, sandpaper and waterproof sandpaper. Sandpaper numbered from 1200, which is the finest, the 10th

 

Warning

Do not use abrasive pads or oscillating abrasive additive in combination with a hobby machine on surfaces to be ironed with a clear coat. Lacquer surface acts as a “magnifying glass” and enables the circular grinding pattern emerges particularly clearly.

Tip

Feels a sandpaper very plain to the manufacturer to have put a thin glue layer of abrasive. It wears off when you start to grind. When renovating older furniture is the finest steel wool is a very good abrasive especially at the final sanding. Fine-meshed steel wool is also the most appropriate abrasive on surfaces to be polished.

Worth knowing about sandpaper

A slip of paper is either open or dense grit coating. Open coating is best suited for coarse grinding of porous surfaces, a dense hardwood. The International grit graduation is attributed to the term of stitches per inch. used during the sifting of abrasives. With your hand you can feel how effective a sandpaper. Is the paper very sharp, it may be that there is grit on top of the actual grains. Such paper may cause scratches. Abrasives which may also exist in rolls, graded from 500, which is the finest, to 40. Water-resistant sandpaper, finally, 50 numbered 600. It is used only for so-called wet grinding for example, water or diluents.

The groundwork

How extensive preparation required before you can grind a surface to be painted or papered, depends on the condition of the surface. Damage, cracks and other imperfections must be repaired or covered with strips and leveled with putty. Level out so carefully that you do not get streaks and other marks that may be difficult to grind away.

Grinding Technology

To a painted, varnished or stained surface to be perfect surface must be smooth and clean. The same requirement applies to wallpapering. The perfect wood surface, which should be both beautiful and give good adhesion to the paint, you can not obtain any other way than by grinding. When sanding wood surfaces always apply: Sand the wood in the longitudinal direction, ie with the grain!

Coarser unevenness, for example, filling, you can get away with a paint scraper. Scrapers of hardened and ground steel with convex edge gives vestiges. Abrasive papers and canvases are available in many types with different effects. To specify a particular grain size for a specific job is almost impossible. You get that professional painters, experimenting.

Some rules of thumb are abrasive paper:

• Soft wood, such as pine, should not be sanded with finer paper than P 120th

• Harder wood, such as mahogany, should not be ground finer than P 150th

• When wet grinding is used as fine paper P 220 400. Wet sanding is done only on already varnished or painted surfaces. The liquid may be, for example water or white spirit.

Steel wool or nylon cloth, other abrasive, but beware of cleaning pads, which are normally used in the household. The river too hard. Although steel wool have different sizes. The finest used for final grinding. When hand sanding, you need a block, around which the sanding paper or cloth is laid. Wooden blocks are too harsh to provide smooth grinding surface. Therefore, choose blocks of cork or felt.

Furniture Renovation – Learn to polish furniture

In this article about furniture restoration, you will find detailed information and step by step instructions with explanatory photographs that show you how to polish a wood surface and shiny.

It is unusual to draw an equal sign between the nests and polish. These working techniques are similar in that a liquid mixture is worked into the wood. But there the similarity ends. When Bonar used special wax or oil, which are worked into the wood but still leaves the wood’s pores open. In contrast, processed cellulose polishing the wood with lacquer, grinding and polishing fluids until the wood’s pores are completely filled and the surface smooth.

It Bonar and polishes wood and partly to give the surface a protective film partly for the sake of appearance. Treated wood is given a special luster and wood species can be seen clearly. Polishing requires both time and patience, but if you have these qualities, you can get even old, badly worn furniture to see the shiny new out.

When restoring furniture, there are three types of polishing: French, American and cellulose polishing. American polishing involves spraying or underscores in several thin layers of special oil varnish. When the paint has dried the surface is treated with grinding and polishing to the desired gloss. French polishing is also called shell lacquer polishing and is thus a surface treatment with a shellackbaserad patina and the polishing pad.

Cellulose Polishing, as shown in our Möbelrenovering article, is a combination of the other two methods. This means that first, coats and grind the wood in two or more installments, then machined surface with hopdragningsvätska and polishing swab until the wood’s pores are completely filled and the surface is even and smooth. Nowadays, most furniture treated with plastic coating, which makes the surface durable and easy to clean. Before plastic paints founded treated many furniture instead of cellulose lacquer.

The disadvantages of this coating is that the surface is not as durable and sustainable, yellowing and cracking additionally with time. Despite these negative qualities can be a good idea to treat older furniture with this method. You get to paint and polishing technique until the wood’s texture and shine in a completely different way than with the modern clearcoat. This can sometimes be more valuable than the surface treatment capacity and lifetime.

The polished surface need not be mirrored. Would you rather have a matte surface processing it completely dry surface with very fine sandpaper, 800/1000. You can also use powdered pumice and bristle brush, which is an older method.

The powder, which should be very fine, sprinkled very thinly over the surface, which is then brushed in the wood longitudinal direction. If the surface is round or has insets, select the appropriate direction and working for this all the time. Brush off all the powder and assess surface shine. If you are not completely satisfied after the first treatment, continue the same way until you have received the matting you want. Antique furniture, that is, furniture made before 1900 century, is usually polished according to the French method, invented in 1810-20. This furniture restoration method requires, however, a touch that amateur hardly.

Warning

Be careful not to smoke or use matches in the same room as you work with eg cellulose varnish and white spirit These mixtures are flammable and thus implies a fire hazard. For the same reason, you should always, after work, burn all the rags soaked in solutions that can easily catch fire can get, even with good training. Want to give your old furniture this finish, you should therefore rather turn to a skilled artisan. Although cellulose polishing, as shown in Figure suite, requires touch, time, and patience of an angel.

Clean the surface thoroughly

Before you can begin Furniture restoration and surface treatment must table surface or furniture sanded very carefully so that all old paint or other surface layer disappears. If the object to be polished with cutouts should also be cleaned well. Use any ear sticks or toothpicks to access downstairs in the nooks and crannies.

In some cases it is not enough only sharpening. If the paint or varnish layer is thick, you can use a paint remover. When the paint or varnish is dissolved, remove leftovers with plastic or wooden scraper. It is easy to damage the wood when working with steel trowel.

To get a perfect result at the furniture renovation, make sure the surface is clean, smooth, dry and free of dust when you start. Then there is the “only” to sand, paint, scrape, sand, paint, scrape, grind, polish, polish and re-polish without losing patience. Then you get an end result, you can “mirror” of yourself.

The major difference between a hat and a polished surface is that the pores of the wood on the polished surface becomes only partially filled (top).

 

 
Furniture Renovation – Polished ytaEn polished surface has been completely filled pores and the surface becomes absolutely smooth and dense (bottom).

 
Worth knowing

To get an even and smooth wood surface in furniture renovation, replace sandpaper frequently. The finer the paper is the more often you have to change, because such paper quickly becomes full of dust. Before you begin to paint, it is important that the surface is dust-free. Even the venue where you are performing the polishing should be free from dust to prevent particles on the newly painted surface.

When you make poles sudden it is important that it will be hard without being dumb. Sudden is too loosely rolled on the “float out” in hand on you. Use one or two men’s socks of pure wool, for example, wide strips of an old linen towel. Do not tie the eraser without shaping the rags to a solid handle. Then it will be easier to fill with new fluid.

Hopdragningsvätskan dissolves paint something and polishing forcing down the paint in the wood pores. It is for this reason that grovporiga wood may require several polishes before the surface is fully covered, while the fine pore rarely require more than two rounds.

When to polish a veneered surface, keep in mind that this does not have as large grinding allowance. Therefore, use a more fine-grained paper to this surface.